Traditional Turpan irrigation system

Over the last few weeks I reported about water shortage from overuse in several parts of the world. The rising demand for water and continuing poor management practices are also causing water crises in China. Some time ago I wrote about one of the symptoms, namely disappearing rivers (source). The first official national river census of China estimated that the country had 22,909 rivers, each with a catchment area of at least 100 square km, at the end of 2011. This is less than half of the more than 50,000 rivers estimated by the Government in the 1990s. The official explanation for this shortfall is mainly the “inaccurate estimate of the past, as well as climate change, (and) water and soil loss”. (source) This could explain why some of the rivers have disappeared, but the primary causes are likely to be declining groundwater and river flow levels, widespread deforestation and increasing withdrawal of water from water bodies. Quoting Peter Gleick from the Pacific Institute: “The water challenges in China are far greater than just climate change." (source 

Very recently I came across this post from Liping Jiang, senior irrigation engineer at the World Bank. It describes the situation, and also presents solutions. It was originally posted a couple of weeks ago on the Worldbank water blog. Thanks to Liping for his permission to repost.